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Lead-free Manufacturing
Lead-free soldering

Lead (Pb), is a toxic metal, harmful. And have great destructive to the natural environment, for environmental protection requirements, especially ISO14000 import, most of the world countries have begun to prohibit the use of lead in the welding material composition, that is lead-free soldering (Leadfree).
Japan in 2004, banning the production or sale of materials, use of lead soldering of electronic production equipment. Europe and the United States in 2006 to prohibit the production or sale of materials, use of lead soldering of electronic production equipment. Use of lead-free soldering has become a trend, some large-scale electronic processing of domestic enterprises, China will accelerate the development of lead-free soldering.
      Motorola Advanced Technology Center Director, Dr. Iwona Turnik sponsored Works99 the meeting of IPC market research report that:
1.20% of consumers will take the initiative to consider the purchase of environmental issues.
2.45% of consumers buying motive is because the products on the environmental safety.
3.50% of consumers switch brands because of its harmful to the environment was found.
4.76% of consumers will be considerable in terms of price and quality, environmentally friendly products under the first option.
      For example, all of Japan's major consumer electronics companies are in mass production of lead-free electronic products, marketing the use of "green products" as a competitive selling point, especially in consumer electronics market. Panasonic introduced the 1998 lead-free mini-CD player, used a package of green leaves, as the environmental safety signs, market share increased significantly: from 4.7% to 15%.
Automotive industry will be the "lead-free" trend of the main driving force. Car "lead-free" is not only for environmental protection, and lead-free solder also improved the temperature characteristics of solder joints. Most of the vehicle electronic components are installed in the engine room, so to bear a higher operating temperature (up to 150 degrees Celsius) and more drastic temperature changes. Competitive pressures and the fear of being squeezed out of a double major international markets to consider, so that the world's most major electronics manufacturers started to prepare for lead-free products.

      Ministry of Economic Operation Gao Zhen Jie introduced by the Director, brewing for two years, "Electronic Information Products Pollution Control Management Measures" are expected to put in the year.

Management Regulations (draft) provides electronic information products should be designed to take into account the environment and human health, should choose non-toxic, harmless and easy to degradation and to facilitate recycling programs. Producers should take measures to gradually reduce and eliminate electronic information products, lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls polymerization (PBB), polymerization of brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and other toxic levels of harmful substances. The EU released "on the electrical and electronic products equipment Prohibition of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances Directive," with effect from July 1, 2006 onwards in the EU market, prohibit the sale of products containing lead, mercury, cadmium and other hazardous substances six kinds of electrical and electronic equipment.

In response to the directive's measures, the introduction of this management approach, its ban on lead schedules may be synchronized with the European Union, that our country will be July 1, 2006 onwards on the market within the state's key regulatory directory of electronic information products can not contain the above-mentioned six kinds of hazardous substances.

To industry sources, the management approach would mean the introduction of the electronic information industry is facing a technological revolution, electronic products, including lead-free solder lead-free, the new flux, lead-free electronic assembly equipment, a new series of problems such as process parameters the need to attach great importance to enterprises and research institutions and early response, or in the future competition in the domestic enterprises to domestic and foreign markets will fall into a passive state.

      In order to meet this series of welding technology changes, the objective to adapt to the market demand, lead-free soldering process requirements have also become a theme of the work of many enterprises.

      Lead-free solder from the lead-free solder, lead-free soldering tools, lead-free soldering environment, composed of three parts, which each of the three parts of a success for the lead-free soldering is critical.

      1. Lead-free solder:

      Compared with the traditional lead solder, lead-free solder alloy by a few principles to replace the original mixture of lead, which is characterized by the melting temperature of this alloy to be slightly higher than the leaded solder.

      With Sn / Ag alloy, for example, its melting temperature of 221 degrees Celsius, higher than the melting temperature of lead-free solder 183 degrees Celsius, while others are lead-free solder Sn / Ag / Cu melting point of 218 ° C, Sn / Ag / Cu / Sb Melting point to 217 degrees Celsius.

     二. Lead-free soldering tools:

      Lead-free lead-free soldering and welding tools, compared with previous production equipment, there are not many changes, but for the rework process, the will face even greater challenges.

      As the preceding lead-free solder, have been referred to the principle of lead-free solder alloy is a mixture of by some to replace the original lead, while the composition of these alloys in the Cu, most frequently used. Cu is easy to oxides, the oxide CuO2 compared with the hardness of Cu reduced, just as iron oxide (rust). Once in the Cu lead-free solder in the welding process of welding time is too long, it is easy to cause oxidation and eventually will become the product quality defects.

      It can be concluded that the shorter the welding process, weld quality, the more to be reliable!

      In the current market, there are a variety of face in the field of lead-free soldering iron.
   

      1. Four kinds of tip temperatures are located in 329Co, each completed 10 consecutive tip solder joints, the temperature of each solder joint to achieve the same temperature 232Co, completion of the next one solder joint.

When the 10 solder joints have been completed, the records of each iron used all the time are as follows:

METCAL - 150 Miao PACE - 204 Miao

WELLER - 245 Miao HAKKO - 316 Miao

The trial showed that, METCAL iron used in the shortest, indicating its power output, high efficiency, faster than the HAKKO more than doubled.

      2. If you make the four kinds of iron have maintained the same welding speed, even if used every time a soldering iron maintained at 150 seconds, the other soldering iron tip must be higher the temperature, while the METCAL iron 329Co the temperature remains the same:

METCAL - 150 Miao - 329 Co PACE - 150 Miao - 349 Co

WELLER - 150 Miao - 380 Co HAKKO - 150 Miao - 409 Co

      We can conclude that, Metcal SP200 warming faster than other means at least 25% faster, while more than twice as fast than the Hakko926ESD will have to.

      Although lead-free soldering and welding tools put forward higher requirements, but after study, we found that some lead-free soldering iron has been able to meet the requirements of the existing lead-free solder, use Metcal soldering iron is more effective to prevent oxidation during the welding process generation, ensure the reliability of lead-free soldering.

     三. Lead-free soldering environment:

      Lead-free soldering environment refers to lead-free soldering process, the right lead-free soldering caused a decisive factor in the success of some of the surrounding environment. A more typical example is lead-free reflow, lead-free wave soldering, lead-free chip-scale rework process whether there is nitrogen protection.

      Lead-free soldering tool in the preceding section mentioned in the oxidation of metal objects generation, precisely because the welding process in the presence of oxygen, while nitrogen protection is to avoid the occurrence of the phenomenon in order to ensure lead-free solder in the solder process, the welding quality reliability.

      At present lead-free reflow, lead-free wave soldering technology has a relatively mature and competition between brands shift from technology to price and service, The reason is that a number of lead-free reflow, lead-free wave soldering production enterprises pairs of nitrogen to protect the consistency of the technical approval.

      In the lead-free chip-level repairing, since the BGA chips are becoming more common in the recent opening, the package features because of its specificity, it is technically in the BGA rework has been divided into two types: hot air type and infrared type.

      BGA rework station hot air style is characterized by reliable quality, the welding process control, infrared-type BGA Rework station is characterized by fast.

      In the hot-air-type BGA rework stations, there are some products it provides nitrogen to protect this function, in line with the basis of lead-free soldering environment requirements. The infrared-type lead-free solder BGA rework station without due protection of nitrogen and accelerated the oxidation of silicon.

      INTEL's next generation of computer CPU in the development process, also used lead-free soldering processes, and to promote the hot-air-type Rework System. OK International Group by the United States to provide Hot-air rework equipment and INTEL Corporation jointly developed a new generation of computer CPU

      Growing concern in today's world lead in the environmental and health hazards. Although the amount of lead in the electronics industry lead the world's total volume of only an extremely small part, but our concern is that most of the last e-waste are buried in the ground, polluting the earth and water resources.

      Today, there are many companies, especially some Japanese consumer electronics manufacturers, are mass-produced lead-free products, and the result is outstanding. In addition, different international laboratories and production lines, has done a lot on the production, resistance strength and service life of lead-free experiments. Perhaps these tests will prove unexpectedly: in the correct process operation, lead-free solder lead-free solder joints more than the ordinary solid, have a more long-term reliability.
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